# Month: March 2015

### billiards

Billiards and Mathematics (Eric Sun)

At first glance, the game billiards doesn’t have any

resemblance to mathematics. Many would think that the diamonds around the table

are there for no reason and that it would require luck. However, throughout the

course of the video, I realise that is has little to do with luck. The lines

around the table are there for a reason and striking the ball at different

angles changes how the Q ball acts, like how striking the Q ball low so it will

spin backwards. I had always thought that it was based on luck and years of

practise But after watching the video, I now know that it has little to do with

luck and more to do with how you strike the ball and how the diamonds are there

for a reason and not there for aesthetic purposes.

#exploremaths

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### Golden ration

The Golden Ratio in nature and

architecture (by Eric Sun)

Examples of

the golden ratio in architecture

1: Toronto’s CN Tower

The CN Tower in Toronto is the tallest,

freestanding structure in the world and contains the golden ratio in its

design. The ratio of the observation desk at 343 metres to the total height of

533.33 is 0.618 or phi.

2: The UN Building

The current headquarters for the United

Nations was constructed on an 18 acre piece of land in the east side on

Manhattan. The lead architect was not known for using the golden ratio in his

designs, however, a French architect on the team was known frequently to use

the golden ratio in his designs. When constructing the United Nations

headquarters, the team decided to use the ratio in a few different ways.

3: The Notre Dame

Phi and the use of the golden ratio are found in the design

of Notre Dame in Paris, France. The west façade of the church was completed

around the year 1200, and it is here where the presence of the use of the

golden ratios is visible.

Examples

of the golden ratio in nature

1:

Spiral Galaxies

Spiral

Galaxies also follow the Fibonnaci Pattern. The Milky Way has several spiral arms, each of them a

logarithmic spiral of about 12 degrees.

2: Pinecones

Similarly, the

seed pods on a pinecone are arranged in a spiral pattern. Each

cone consists of a pair of spirals, each one spiralling upwards in opposing direction

#exploremaths

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### symmetry and tesselation

Symmetry and Tessellation (Eric Sun)

Today in class we learnt about the properties of symmetry

where we tested different methods such

as rotation, reflectional, scale symmetry and translational symmetry. Tessellation

can be found within games. A chess board consisting of 64 squares, with 2

alternating colours (usually a dark colour and

a light colour) feature a tessellation of squares, unlike a beehive, with its hexagons

and relatively same colours. It was amazing to see and create the scale

symmetry with my own shape, which could be made smaller or bigger depending on

the scale chosen on my ruler. The completed

shape with the spirals joined, although what started off as something simple,

turned out to produce something complex.

#exploremaths

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### Fractals

Fractals

(Eric Sun)

Fractals are everywhere in nature. They are never ending.

They go on forever until the human eye can’t see it anymore. Fractals can be seen

almost everywhere in our environment such as shorelines where they keep splitting

up into various individual rivers and the dividing branches on trees. Fractals

can be enlarged and part of it still resembles the original shape.

Favourite Fractal My favourite fractal is the salt flats

in San Francisco and Bolivia. They may seem normal but a closer look will

reveal that they are full of fractals. It looks normal at first but look closer

and they look amazing but it’s subtle.

#exploremaths

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### Music and mathematics (by Erik Willison)

#exploremaths

In this lesson I learnt many things such as Donald duck is cool and how maths is cool

I the first video that we watched was all about Pythagoras and his discoveries. The main ideas that I took away from this were: the ratio of an octave being 2:1, how pentagons are really, really, really, cool and finally the overwhelmingly awe-inspiring, inconceivable fact that Mr. Woo just so happened to mention under his breath: Pythagoras suggested that the universe is made of numbers. Now, that may have seemed relatively anti-climactic after all of those big words but when you think about it; the universe being made of numbers is pretty darn amazing. This is especially true as if numbers, on their own, are just things that we conceive, as they are no linger adjectives for nouns, then the entirety of the universe is something that we conceive. So in that sense numbers and the universe are just like infinity; there is no infinity but it is still real even though we can not see it or ever have an infinite amount of anything.

The other things that I mentioned earlier were the pentagram and the octave. These are not as amazing as the conceived universe but they are still pretty exceptional. The pentagram consists completely of fractals, the golden ratio, spiral, rectangle and angle. Either that or it consists completely of illuminati, the devil and that angry goat thing.

Anyway all the things it is made of basically constitute to maths and here is a neat example of a supposedly infinite amount of pentagrams inside a pentagram.

Personally I think that there must be a pattersn or rule that tells you how much golden ration tht there is in a shape and that the pentagram is just the most prominent example of the golden ratio in a shape.

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### Fractals (by Sandeep Darapuneni)

#exploremaths

Fractals are scattered every in nature, from the lightning

that strikes the Earth to our very own lungs. As a line can never really be

straight, they show how the world can be perfect through it’s imperfections.

Many things throughout the world have this property and it can also be known as

iteration or scale symmetry. Personally, I find the fractals found in rivers to

be mesmerising as you can look at them from satellite imagery or through a

microscope to find the same basic shape.

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### Tessellation in Nature (by Sandeep Darapuneni)

#exploremaths

In the lesson, we went over some older memories from primary

school and talked about the different types of symmetry. Although we drew some

examples of rotational and reflectional symmetries, the main points of discussion

were scale and translation symmetry. Scale symmetry, as we went on to learn

about this in future lessons, was essentially describing the self-similarity of

shapes. We attempted to show this type of symmetry in our books too, by drawing

a square with many rotating squares inside of it. The remaining type,

translational symmetry or tessellation, was how one shape could be used to fill

an area without leaving any spaces. One example would be, as we discussed in

class, the hexagons of a beehive. Another naturally occurring tessellation is the pineapple as it is, like the beehive, filled with many hexagons. Though

these are irregular shapes, it is still quite interesting to see how nature’s

beauty is based on mathematics.

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